Tag: probable cause

Lights Out!

Iowa City, Johnson County, Iowa.  Some things you must see to believe.  The prosecution and law enforcement attempted to convince a judge to not believe what everyone could clearly see.  Thankfully, the judge believed what he too could see. Two Iowa City Police Department police officers, Maddie Friedrich and her Field Training Officer, Brad Reinhard, […]

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Marijuana Grinders are not Paraphernalia in Iowa

Iowa Code section 124.414 defines “drug paraphernalia” as “all equipment, products, or materials of any kind used or attempted to be used in combination with a controlled substance . . . to knowingly or intentionally and primarily do any of the following:” Manufacture a controlled substance; Inject, ingest, inhale, or otherwise introduce into the human […]

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Applying the Trespass Doctrine to K9 Sniffs in Marijuana Traffic Stops

In United States v. Jones, 565 U.S. 400 (2012), the Supreme Court announced that any physical intrusion onto a personal “effect,” such as a vehicle parked on a public street, was a search under the Fourth Amendment when done for the purposes of gathering information. Most attorneys and judges understand Jones to be the “GPS […]

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